Wednesday, 30 May 2018

How Bacteria Eat Penicillin

Some bacteria take antibiotic resistance a step further: they chow down on the very compounds designed to kill microbes and use them as fuel. Researchers detail today (April 30) in nature chemical biology how some bacteria accomplish this feat, including the genes and enzymes involved in digesting penicillin. They hope the knowledge will eventually be put to work in applications such as breaking down antibiotics in, for example, hospital waste or farm runoff, and constructing novel drug compounds.

“Basically, if you look for it it’s there in when it comes to bacterial degradation of compounds. . . . Somebody out there will degrade just about everything,” say Jandelsman  a microbiologist at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. “I don’t think that penicillin-producing strains of Penicillium are absolutely ubiquitous in soil, so it is kind of interesting that it is easy to find these degraders, even though they may not individually have encountered penicillin before.”

Gautam Dantus, a microbiologist in St. Louis, stumbled across the phenomenon of antibiotic-eating bacteria during an earlier study looking for bacteria that can break down toxins, he explains. In that study, his group chose some antibiotics as controls to measure microbes’ responses to compounds they couldn’t eat—or so the researchers thought.

Instead, Dantas was surprised to find that some of the bacteria could, in fact, eat the drugs, and he began asking colleagues to send him soil samples from different places so his team could test for the presence of such microbes. As it turned out, they were everywhere. He also found examples of the phenomenon in the scientific literature going back to the 1960s.

“What has been missing has been any kind of mechanistic elucidation of how this occurs,” he says. So his team set out to deconstruct the steps needed to break down penicillin—selected because it and its derivatives are the largest class of antibiotics—into microbial fuel.
The project ended up taking about a decade, Dantas tells The Scientist, largely because the penicillin-eating microbes aren’t model organisms, and the team had to develop or adapt techniques to knock out certain genes and otherwise manipulate them.

As part of their experiments, the researchers exposed the microbes to one type of partially broken-down penicillin compound at a time to determine the order of steps in the degradation pathway. To do so, they first had to synthesize some of the compounds themselves. Once the researchers thought they’d figured out all the genes involved in the pathway, they transfected them into E. coli and gave them the ability to eat penicillin.

Dantas suggests that, similarly, the genes could be used to specially engineer microbes to break down antibiotic pollutants—for example, in waste from farms where the drugs have been used in livestock or in effluent from hospitals.
The idea of engineering antibiotic-eating bacteria to combat the spread of drug resistance is counterintuitive, but Dantas is cognizant of safety concerns. The gene used in the first step of the pathway, which codes for an enzyme that deactivates penicillin, is the same one already used by penicillin-resistant pathogens, so, he argues, such an approach wouldn’t be introducing new resistance genes to the environment—though he concedes that “you never want to play around with any kind of genetic engineering without very carefully thinking of the risk and what the mitigation strategies might be.” A lower-risk alternative, he says, might be to deploy the bacterial enzymes but not bacteria themselves.

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Researchers synthesized some penicillin breakdown products themselves for use in the experiments.

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Monday, 28 May 2018

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Develop your knowledge by learning from experts in the World Conference on Bacteriology and Infectious Diseases 2018 hosted by Pulsus Conferences.

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Saturday, 26 May 2018

Poultry Bacteriology

Global Poultry Bacteriology Diagnostics Market Size, Status and Forecast 2025 provides strategists, marketers and senior management with the critical information they need to assess the global Poultry Bacteriology Diagnostics sector. The global Poultry Bacteriology Diagnostics market is expected to reach USD XX billion by 2024, from an estimated USD XX billion in 2017, growing at a CAGR of XX% during 2018-2024.

The report covers the factors impacting the market, Porter 5 Forces, Market Share Analysis, Price trend analysis, Product Benchmarking, and company profiles. The report segments the geographies by regions, which include North America, Europe, China, Japan, Southeast Asia and India.

Sales of Poultry Bacteriology Diagnostics on basis of each region for each year is analyzed in the report. Report provides Poultry Bacteriology Diagnostics market size by regions, type and applications. It also provides market share by regions, type and applications.

The Poultry Bacteriology Diagnostics Market report profiles the following companies, which includes

  • IDEXXLaboratories,Inc.(U.S.)

  • QIAGENN.V.(Netherlands)

  • ThermoFisherScientificInc.(U.S.)

  • Zoetis,Inc.(U.S.)

  • GDAnimalHealth(Netherlands)

  • IDvet(France)

  • AffiniTech,LTD.(U.S.)

  • AgroBioTekInternacional(Honduras)

  • BioNote,Inc.(SouthKorea)

  • BioChek(Netherlands)

  • BoehringerIngelheim(Germany)
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Thursday, 24 May 2018

Gut Bacteria Balance and Your Health!

Watch this video to know about #gut bacteria 


Effect of Bifidobacterium longum and inulin on gut bacterial metabolism and carcinogen-induced aberrant crypt foci in rats.

The effect of Bifidobacterium longum (4 x 10(8) viable cells/g diet) and a derivative of inulin ('Raftiline HP'; 5% w/w in diet) on colonic aberrant crypt foci (ACF) induced by the colon carcinogen azoxymethane (AOM) has been studied. The concentration of ammonia, a putative tumour promoter produced by bacterial degradation of protein and urea, and the activities of certain bacterial enzymes thought to play a role in colon carcinogenesis, beta-glucuronidase and beta-glucosidase were also assayed. Consumption of either B. longum or inulin was associated with a decrease (26 and 41%, respectively) in AOM-induced small ACF (i.e. those comprising 1-3 aberrant crypts per focus). Combined administration of the bifidobacterium and inulin resulted in more potent inhibition of ACF than administration of the two separately, achieving 80% inhibition of small ACF. Furthermore, the combined administration significantly decreased the incidence (by 59%) of large ACF (>4 aberrant crypts per focus), which are considered to be predictive of eventual tumour incidence. Since the dietary treatments were started 1 week after the carcinogen dose, the results suggest that B. longum and inulin may be affecting the early promotion phase of the carcinogenic process. Consumption of diets containing B. longum, inulin or both were also associated with decreases in beta-glucuronidase activity and ammonia concentration in the caecal contents. Both these factors have been associated with carcinogenesis of the colon in experimental animal models. In rats given inulin-containing diets (with or without B. longum) an increase in caecal wt and beta-glucosidase activity and a decrease in caecal pH were observed. The results suggest that consumption of B. longum or inulin was associated with potentially beneficial changes in caecal physiology and bacterial metabolic activity in relation to tumour risk and in the incidence of putative preneoplastic lesions in the colon. The results also indicated that combined treatment with the two agents was more effective in reducing colonic lesions.
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Wednesday, 23 May 2018

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Tuesday, 22 May 2018

Plant Bacteriology

The bacteriology of the root region of oat plants grown under controlled conditions has been studied by means of improved techniques for separate estimation of the microfloras of the rhizosphere soil and of the root surface. The plate count of bacteria in the root region increased during the growing period of the plants; superphosphate produced a greater increase, which was probably due to increased plant growth, as no such effect was observed in uncropped soil.

The numbers of acid producing and dicalcium phosphate dissolving bacteria were increased in the root region, but the latter were not preferentially stimulated. Dressings of superphosphate and dicalcium phosphate also did not preferentially stimulate either group. No evidence was obtained, by the plate method used, of the presence of organisms capable of dissolving variscite, strengite, or gafsa rock phosphate, although the plants showed appreciable response to gafsa rock phosphate. And to learn more about plant bacteriology attend the conference bacteriology 2018


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Sunday, 20 May 2018

                                                            Bacterial Vaccines

Mucosal routes for vaccine delivery offer several advantages over systemic inoculation from both immunological and practical points of view. The development of efficient mucosal vaccines therefore represents a top prority in modern vaccinology. One way to deliver protective antigens at the mucosal surfaces is to use live bacterial vectors. Until recently most of these were derived from attenuated pathogenic microorganisms. As an alternative to this strategy, nonpathogenic food grade bacteria such as lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are being tested for their efficacy as live antigen carriers. The LABVAC european research network is presently comparing the vaccine potential of Lactococcus lactis, Streptococcus gordonii and Lactobacillus spp. To date, it has been shown that systemic and mucosal antigen-specific immune responses can be elicited in mice through the nasal route using the three LAB systems under study. Data on successful oral and vaginal immunisations are also accumulating for L. lactis and S. gordonii, respectively. Moreover, the immune responses can be potentiated by co-expression of interleukins. Future areas of research include improvement of local immunisation efficiency, analysis of in vivo antigen production, unravelling of the Lactobacillus colonisation mechanisms and construction of biologically contained strains.

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Friday, 18 May 2018

Clinical Bacteriology: 

In today's clinical microbiology laboratory, automation is being introduced that will change the nature of how clinical specimens are processed and analysed. Over the last several years, many microbiology laboratories have implemented automation to process liquid specimens which have historically been inoculated to media manually. In some institutions, this automation has been able to free up staff to concentrate on other tasks and has resulted in increased efficiency in the laboratory setting. In addition to efficiency, there are ergonomic gains in the workplace due to the pre-analytical plating instruments since tasks that are manual such as de-capping and re-capping specimens are now performed by the automated processor. This functionality reduces the ergonomic impact of the manual task and improves the work place environment for the employee. This pre-analytical plating instrumentation is now being integrated within a suite of instruments referred to as Total Laboratory Automation, or TLA, which includes digital plate reading (DPR) and middleware technology applied to culture analysis. DPR and associated middleware allow the laboratory to analyse cultures in a new and innovative way. The inoculated media is imaged using a camera in the “smart incubator”, and the image presented to the technologist via the computer screen at the bench. The analysis of the culture occurs using the digital image. Further workup, such as picking a colony for mass spectrometry or automated identification, is being automated as well. This chapter will discuss the new and innovative automation solutions available for the clinical microbiology laboratory today.

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Bacterial Diseases

Food and agriculture is an important component in the development and survival of civilizations. Around half of the world’s population and their economies are influenced by agricultural farm production. Plant diseases take as much as a 30 percent toll of the crop harvest if not managed properly and efficiently. Bacterial diseases of crop plants are important in plant disease scenarios worldwide and are observed on all kinds of cultivated and commercial value plants including cereals, pulses, oilseeds, fruits, vegetables, cash crops, plantation crops, spices, ornamentals and flowering plant, forage crop, forest trees, and lawn grasses.

Bacterial diseases are widespread and are difficult to identify and to control. Few pesticides are available for use in control, and many plant pathologists are not well trained in the management of bacterial diseases. Bacterial Diseases of Crop Plantsoffers concise information on bacterial diseases of crops, proving a valuable asset to students, scientists in industry and academia, farmers, extension workers, and those who deal with crops that are vulnerable to bacterial diseases.

Thursday, 17 May 2018

Use of Vaccines for Bacterial Meningitis

Polysaccharide-encapsulated organisms are the leading cause of bacterial meningitis and pneumonia in children. The use of protein–polysaccharide conjugate vaccines in developed countries over the past two decades has markedly decreased the burden of disease and mortality from these organisms through direct protection of the immunized and through herd immunity. In the next decade, the widespread use of conjugate vaccines in the developing world should prevent millions of deaths. In this Science and Society article, we describe how vaccine-induced immunity wanes rapidly after vaccination in early childhood and argue that strategies that sustain protection in the population must be considered.

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Tuesday, 15 May 2018


characters include the characters and property of cells, behaviors
of the biological system. The phenotypic assay is accomplished in 96 well Petri
plates.the study of phenotypic characters helps one to study the cell
transformation, microscopic and macroscopic morphology. Using the phenotypic
characters bacterial identification and microbial ecology are done.microbial
metabolomics is integrated component of biology. Recent advancements in
metabolomics are the analysis of metabolome. The phenotypic classification system
of gram
stain bacteria includes both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria.some
factors influencing phenotypic characters include changing environment,
radiation, toxins, mutagens, bacteriophages etc. Some
phenotypic changes include antigenic
variations, competence in Bacillus subtilis, endospore in Bacillus subtilis,
colicin production in E.coli, the persistence of antibiotic-resistant
Staphylococcus and phenotypes due to mutation.Genotypic
characters have application in bacterial identification and classification by
genotypic methods which involve genetic materials DNA and RNA. Species-specific
hybridization is a technique which involves DNA-DNA hybridization
and thermal stability hybrids are used in differentiating species.some of the
genotypic methods include amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis,16s
and 23s rDNA sequencing, strain-specific typing, pulse field gel electrophoresis,
randomly amplified polymorphic DNA assay,amplified fragment length
polymorphism, ribotyping, Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and finally
protein-based methods.

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Friday, 11 May 2018

Bacteriology 2018


Bacteria are prokaryotic microorganism which survive on all living organism. Bacteria has different shapes and structures and so the diversity of bacteria is huge. These bacteria are classified based on their cell structure, bacterial metabolism. Molecular systematic is one of the way of classification of bacteria using genetic engineering. Bacteria are classified as Gram positive, Gram negative and miscellaneous bacteria. Bacterial classification is also known as Bacterial taxonomy which includes phylogenetic tree classification.

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    Wednesday, 9 May 2018

    Chicago is world-famous for its plethora of unique architectural styles, grand Graystones along Logan Boulevard and Lawndale Avenue, from the skyscrapers of the Loop as well as a wealth of sacred architecture such as the city's ornate polish Cathedral.