Thursday, 12 July 2018

                                   Infectious Diseases


The history of the human species, it has been said, is the history of infectious disease. Over the centuries, humans have been exposed to a vast amount and array of contagious conditions, including the Black Death and other forms of plague, typhoid fever, cholera, malaria, influenza, and the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, or AIDS. Only in the past few hundred years have scientists begun to have any sort of accurate idea concerning the origin of such diseases, through the action of microorganisms and other parasites. Such understanding has led to the development of vaccines and methods of inoculation, yet even before they made these great strides in medicine, humans had an unseen protector: their own immune systems.

Infection and Immunity

There are two basic types of disease: ones that are infectious, or extrinsic, meaning that they are contagious or communicable and can be spread by contact between people, and ones that are intrinsic, or not infectious. Diseases in general and noninfectious diseases in particular are discussed in essays devoted to those subjects. So, too, is infection itself, a subject separate from infectious diseases: a person can get an infection, such as tetanus or salmonella, without necessarily having a disease that can be passed on through contact with others in the same way that colds, malaria, or syphilis is spread.

Bacterial infections include anthrax, botulism, tetanus (lockjaw), leprosy, tuberculosis, diphtheria, whooping cough, plague, and a variety of pneumococcal, staphylococcal, and streptococcal illnesses. Among viral illnesses and diseases are the common cold, influenza, infectious mononucleosis, smallpox, chicken pox, measles, mumps, rubella (or German measles), yellow fever, poliomyelitis (i.e., polio), rabies, herpes simplex, and AIDS. Diseases related to other varieties of parasite include malaria, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, trichinosis, scabies, and river blindness. Nonmicroscopic parasites, particularly such worms as hookworm and pin-worm, bring about disease-like forms of parasitic infestation within the body. source:

Infectious Diseases are vast and by having a proper knowledge on how to avoid those diseases can be learnt from experts. so here is one good opportunity to learn from experts all over the world in San Antonio, USA on November 14-15, 2018 in the Conference Bacteriology 2018
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Wednesday, 11 July 2018

Genetic Engineering-Based Therapies for Infectious Diseases

Gene therapy is in a golden age and more and more physicians and laypeople are growing aware of it. There have been stories about it, including on the AAPS Blog, and it’s most obvious application is to correct genetic defects within the human genome. This means genes encoding proteins that we need, where an abnormal or absent protein causes disease. The classic case is an enzyme deficiency. If someone lacks any normal copies of a gene for a certain enzyme, the enzyme is not produced, but gene therapy inserts the needed gene into the patient’s cells. With hemophilia B, for instance, lack of one enzyme disrupts a long pathway of biochemical reactions, leading to inadequate blood clotting. But clinical trials on gene therapy show that clotting can be normalized in such patients by inserting a working copy of the gene for the missing enzyme into the stem cells of the patient’s bone marrow.

shutterstock_509084095There are numerous other examples of gene therapy showing promise, including for infectious conditions, which might not be an obvious gene therapy application on first thought. After all, there are hundreds of antibacterial drugs on the market, numerous agents against parasites, a bunch of antiviral agents, and the list of effective vaccines keeps getting longer. Whereas infectious diseases used to be the way that most people died in developed countries, that’s not the case anymore. So why talk about gene therapy for infectious disease?

The answer is that certain infectious agents are not as vulnerable to conventional pharmaceutical tactics. Some viruses, bacteria, and protozoa have evolved tricks enabling them to hide in certain tissues, often laying dormant and striking over and over again, often killing the patient. An example is human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which actually integrates its own genome into that of a patient’s own cells. Using a combination of therapies that attack HIV in different ways, the virus can be kept in check. So an HIV patient today can live for many decades, but the virus is still there in the patient’s cells, ready to kill if the therapy ever stops. Tuberculosis (TB) is a bacterial infection, but a particularly tough one. In fact, it’s the most common cause of death in HIV patients whose condition progresses to AIDS.

Then there is malaria, where the causative agent is neither bacterial nor viral, but protozoan. The lifecycle of the malaria parasite, called Plasmodium, is complex. It has forms that live in red blood cells, and (for some species) hide in the liver for many years, even if the ones in red blood cells are destroyed by anti-malaria drugs.

Various gene therapy tactics are coming online to combat these infections. One promising tactic depends on findings published recently in the online journal PLOS ONE showing a particular strain can infect certain ape species, and not others, by taking advantage of cell characteristics particular to the species. A CRISPR-based gene therapy might be designed to delete parts of the HIV genome that enable the species-specific tricks, even after the HIV has incorporated its genome into the patient’s. Furthermore, there are people who, due to a genetic deficiency, lack certain protein receptors on special blood cells called T lymphocytes. Normally, HIV requires these receptors in order to penetrate the cells, so the genetically deficient people are resistant to HIV. Gene therapies under development might transfer the “deficiency” to other people, thereby rendering them resistant to the virus. Gene therapy must be delivered inside tiny carrier particles, called vectors. Quite ironically, one of the best suited vectors is an HIV virus itself, altered to deliver the therapeutic payload into a patient’s cells, instead of the usual HIV content.

When it comes to TB and malaria, the strategy here is to perform gene therapy on the genome of the causative organism itself, rather than on the genome of the patient. With malaria, for instance, a Yale University study suggests that special RNA strands called morpholino oligomers could be employed to alter the gene expression of Plasmodium falciparum, the species of Plasmodium that is most problematic. Finally, there is an idea in the works, potentially applicable to all of these conditions, to use gene therapy to enhance the human immune system by delivering genes to help immune cells make particular antibodies.

Although the rate of deaths attributed to infectious diseases declined (at a very low rate) between 1990 and 2010, emerging pathogens continue to plague humanity. Being prepared with front-line defense mechanisms, such as gene therapy, is a critical step toward outpacing virulent infectious diseases. Source:

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Saturday, 7 July 2018

Good and Bad Bacteria

Bacteria aren’t all bad, in fact you couldn’t survive without some bacteria!  Good bacteria in your gut, probiotics like GI Jake, help digest your food and fight invading microbes.  Good bacteria are used in making some of the dairy products you like to eat and also some types of medicinesBacteria are some of the best decomposers – they break down dead and decaying organic matter, from leaves to insects.  Best of all, bacteria are being used to clean up oil spills to keep your environment healthy too.

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Friday, 6 July 2018

Infection: Bacterial or Viral?

A common misconception amongst lay people is that bacterial and viral infections are the same, that in fact one is just another term meaning the other. This erroneous belief stems from the similarities between bacteria and viruses, and leads to a false sense of the impact each can have.
To be sure, both bacterial infections and viral infections are quite capable of quickly reaching epidemic or pandemic proportions, as witnessed by the great bacterial plagues of medieval times, the Black Death being the best known, or the disastrous Spanish flu viral outbreak of the early 20th century, both of which were responsible for considerable death and suffering.


Bacteria are amongst the smallest living organisms, in fact they are only single celled, and are too small to actually reproduce, so they divide into two instead, although this technique is remarkably efficient allowing bacteria to quickly increase their numbers with every generation doubling in size. Bacterial infections are therefore very difficult to fight once they reach a critical mass and the human immune system quickly needs external help in the form of antibacterial medication.


Viruses, whilst being smaller than bacteria, are not in fact living organisms, they are instead just genetic material that requires a human or other living host to allow them to multiply. Viruses attach themselves to existing cells in body damaging them in the process, and also using the cell to reproduce and so infect other cells. Because they co-opt cells into reproducing the virus, growth can be slower than bacterial infection.
Being living microorganisms, bacteria are able to survive without a host, they simply need conditions to be right for continued survival, and can quite easily survive on surfaces, inside bedding and furniture, on doorknobs, faucets, elevator control panels, keyboards, phones, and so small we don’t see them. To prevent transmission, regular cleaning and disinfecting is important, especially in a hospital.
Viruses are not living organisms, and as such are not able to live for long outside a host, although this does not mean that surfaces or soft items are safe. Most viral genetic tissue is capable of lying dormant outside a host for a short time, in the case of the flu virus as much as three or four days. Disinfecting areas contaminated by viruses is an effective method of control.

Bacterial and viral infections are both very capable of spreading very efficiently from person to person thru sneezing, saliva, bodily fluids, or direct contact and are easily confused for one another. However, there are some fundamental differences, most particularly, that being living organisms bacteria are in a state of continual evolution, and are able to develop resistance to antibiotic medications.

New virus strains also appear regularly, but they don’t have any ability to develop resistance, and treatment usually involves letting the virus run its course, although in serious cases antiviral medications may be prescribed.

A further difference between bacterial infection vs viral infection is the possibility of vaccination against many viral infections, something that until recently hasn’t always been possible against bacterial infections.

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Thursday, 5 July 2018

Tuesday, 3 July 2018


Did you know that you're mostly a microbe? There are more microbial cells in your body than your own cells. Microbes are found everywhere: in and on your body, in streams and rocks, on your smartphone screen, and in your food. Despite their bad reputation, microbes are mostly beneficial or have a neutral effect on our lives.
Microbiology is the scientific study of these microorganisms. Microorganisms are those organisms that are too small to see with the naked eye and include things like bacteria, fungi, and viruses.
An electron microscope image of a Bacteriophage virus
Microbiologists study these organisms using tools, like microscopes, genetics, and culturing. Microscopes allow scientists to magnify microbial cells that are otherwise too small to see. Genetics and molecular biology help scientists understand the evolutionary relationships between microbes and their habitats.
Culturing is the term used to describe growing microbes, usually combined with tests to see what the microbes like to eat or what conditions they can live in. If you've ever seen a petri dish, you've seen a common place where microbes are cultivated.
A petri dish with bacterial colonies growing on the growth medium.
Petri dish
Most of the microbes, or bacteria, in your body are meant to be there and are called resident bacteria. These bacteria that are well-established residents of your body, especially the skin and gut. They are your first line of defense against potentially dangerous transient bacteria, meaning temporary bacteria that you might pick up from touching a door handle or being near someone who sneezes. The resident bacteria can usually out-compete the transient bacteria, preventing them from settling in and causing an infection.
So, how else do microbes help us? The next time you enjoy cheese, sausage, and beer at a party, be aware that many of the foods and drinks we enjoy are not possible without microbes. Dairy products, such as yogurt and cheese, have been made for centuries with microbes to lengthen the lifetime of milk. The process of fermentation is carried out by microbes and gives these items their characteristic taste, odor, and texture. Beer and wine also use microbes (in this case, yeasts) to produce the alcohol in those beverages.
Bacterial cells help change milk to yogurt using fermentation to give it the characteristic thick texture and tart taste.
Despite all the good microbes do, when we hear news stories about microbes, it is usually about pathogens. Pathogens are the invading microbes in our bodies that make us sick. It is usually our immune system's reaction to the foreign microbial invaders that give us the crummy symptoms, like a fever or stomachache.
Infections from pathogenic bacteria can sometimes clear up on their own, or with help from antibiotics. Antibiotics are the various medicines that fight bacteria by damaging proteins, the cell wall, or carrying out other damaging attacks on bacteria. A bad side to antibiotics is that they can rarely tell the difference between good and bad bacteria. With antibiotics both resident and transient bacteria are damaged, and while it will help clear up an infection, it might also give you a bad stomachache .source:
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Monday, 2 July 2018

Experts Gathering at San Antonio, USA for the World Conference on Bacteriology and Infectious Diseases

USA which is also know as America or United States consists of 50 states, five major self governing territories and a federal district.San Antonio is one of the popular tourist place in USA. The Alamo Mission in San Antonio which is located in downtown, is the top tourist attraction and hence it is often called Alamo City. It is also called the River city because the River Walk which meanders through the Downtown area, is the second most attraction of the city. The Downtown Area also features San Fernando Cathedral, The Majestic Theatre, Hemisfair, La Villita, Market Square, the Spanish Palace of the governor, and the historic Menger Hotel. The Fairmount Hotel, built in 1906 and San Antonio's second oldest hotel, is in the Guinness World Records as one of the heaviest buildings ever moved intact. The city has one of the largest marine life park in the world called Sea world. It has amusement parks which include Six Flags Fiesta Texas, Splashtown and Morgan Wonderland, a theme park for children with special needs. Kiddie Park, featuring old-fashioned amusement rides for children. To make it a better place to visit it has many museum, Historical Park, Botanical Garden and also theatres.

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Wednesday, 27 June 2018

Carbon metabolism of intracellular bacterial pathogens and possible links to virulence


New technologies such as high-throughput methods and 13C-isotopologue-profiling analysis are beginning to provide us with insight into the in vivo metabolism of microorganisms, especially in the host cell compartments that are colonized by intracellular bacterial pathogens. In this Review, we discuss the recent progress made in determining the major carbon sources and metabolic pathways used by model intracellular bacterial pathogens that replicate either in the cytosol or in vacuoles of infected host cells.
  • Recent progress has expanded our knowledge about the metabolism of the model bacterial pathogens Listeria monocytogenesShigella flexneri (and the closely related enteroinvasive Escherichia coli (EIEC)), Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium and Mycobacterium tuberculosiswhen living inside the host cell.
  • Differences in the metabolic characteristics of these four pathogens have been elucidated in the context of the metabolism of host cell lines used for in vitro infection.
  • There are several tools available to study the metabolism of these intracellular pathogens, and differential gene expression profiling (DGEP) and 13C isotopologue analysis (13C-IPA) have been particularly fruitful; however, there are both strengths and weaknesses for these techniques.
  • Models have been suggested (mainly on the basis of data from DGEP and 13C-IPA studies) for the metabolic pathways and fluxes used by the four pathogens when replicating in their specific intracellular compartments (the cytosol or specific phagosomal vacuoles of the host cell). Each pathogen adapts specifically to the host cell environment but exhibits a surprisingly high metabolic flexibility in response to altered metabolic conditions.
  • There is limited experimental evidence for interference by the metabolism of these intracellular bacteria with the expression of virulence genes that are required for their intracellular lifestyles.
  • There is an urgent need for improved in vivo systems and more sensitive analytical tools for studying the metabolism of the bacterial pathogens in real target cells and animal models. source:
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Monday, 25 June 2018

Sensitive and fast identification of bacteria in blood samples by immunoaffinity mass spectrometry for quick BSI diagnosis

Bloodstream infections rank among the most serious causes of morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients, partly due to the long period (up to one week) required for clinical diagnosis. In this work, we have developed a sensitive method to quickly and accurately identify bacteria in human blood samples by combining optimized matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MS) and efficient immunoaffinity enrichment/separation. A library of bacteria reference mass spectra at different cell numbers was firstly built. Due to a reduced sample spot size, the reference spectra could be obtained from as few as 10 to 102 intact bacterial cells. Bacteria in human blood samples were then extracted using antibodies-modified magnetic beads for MS fingerprinting. By comparing the sample spectra with the reference spectra based on a cosine correlation, bacteria with concentrations as low as 500 cells per mL in blood serum and 8000 cells per mL in whole blood were identified. The proposed method was further applied to positive clinical blood cultures (BCs) provided by a local hospital, where Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were identified. Because of the method’s high sensitivity, the BC time required for diagnosis can be greatly reduced. As a proof of concept, whole blood spiked with a low initial concentration (102 or 103 cells per mL) of bacteria was cultured in commercial BC bottles and analysed by the developed method after different BC times. Bacteria were successfully identified after 4 hours of BC. Therefore, an entire diagnostic process could be accurately accomplished within half a day using the newly developed method, which could facilitate the timely determination of appropriate anti-bacterial therapy and decrease the risk of mortality from bloodstream infections. Source:

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Friday, 22 June 2018

“Kill Switch” Prevents Spread of Genetically Modified Bacteria

As genetically-modified microbes take on ever more tasks – from creating new pharmaceuticals to turning out clean fuel sources – researchers have searched for a way to biologically isolate them from their wild counterparts, so that if they were ever accidentally released, they wouldn’t be able to survive.
Now, scientists releasing two separate papers in the journal Nature think they have a solution. They unveiled two different approaches to modifying a strain of E. coli to make it dependent on artificial nutrients. In a controlled environment, such as a research lab or factory, scientists would provide that sustenance. But if the bacteria break free, they wouldn’t be able to make the compounds themselves, and would die.

No Escape

Scientists have previously used similar approaches, making GMO bacteria reliant on synthetic nutrients. But in the past, the GMO bacteria have evolved the ability to live without the synthetic nutrients. Bacteria have ejected the part of their DNA that made them reliant on the nutrients, or they figured out how to cobble together an equivalent of those nutrients from the natural world.
In separate projects, teams led by Yale molecular biologist Farren Isaacs and Harvard molecular geneticist George Church have genetically modified E. coliso that it is totally dependent on synthetic amino acids. And in both cases that need is built in to multiple parts of the bacteria’s genome – 49 times in the Harvard study – so that the likelihood that the bacteria would evolve to overcome the restriction is unlikely. And both strains showed an undetectably small escape rate – the number of E. coli able to survive without being fed the synthetic amino acid.

Out in the Open

Church and Isaacs said that their work is most likely to be used in pharmaceutical or dairy operations – making cheese, yogurt or drugs. These processes happen in closed facilities and fermenters. Unlike in the fields, bees or breezes won’t spread genetically modified material around, but there is a risk of contamination if the microscopic bacteria get onto employees’ clothing or into the air.
Meanwhile the scientists hope their research lays the groundwork for larger applications of modified bacteria in open-air settings, including for bioremediation – the use of living organisms to clean up polluted sites like landfills and oil spills. In these settings a reliance on synthetic amino acids mean the genetically modified organisms could be “contained” molecularly even if they are no longer physically contained.

Future Uses

The safety features aren’t the only appealing attribute of the modified E. colifeatured in the new papers. The scientists also built in resistance to a number of viruses. That means the bacteria are safe from attack by viruses that can be devastating in food or pharmaceutical manufacturing – like when viral contamination caused a Genzyme Corp. plant to halt manufacturing in 2009, temporarily cutting off the medication supply for some patients.
Church noted that the viral resistance could be an incentive to “sweeten the offer” and encourage companies to use “safe” GMOs. The technique could also provide intellectual property protection for industrial, pharmaceutical or food companies, since they could make their own GMOs dependent on specific synthetic amino acids, and other companies would have trouble replicating those modified organisms without the “key.” Such built-in IP protection could actually encourage collaboration between different companies, Isaacs said.
“This is really motivated by anticipating the impact biotechnology will have over the next several decades, recognizing the importance of endowing these GMOs with more sophisticated functions, to have more safety measures going forward,” Isaacs told reporters. “Endowing safeguards will be important to allow the field to progress.”

Thursday, 21 June 2018

Infectious Diseases

Infectious diseases are caused by living organisms, they pose two problems to medicine and public health. First, pathogens can grow and replicate, allowing them to evolve drug resistance or change just enough to be unrecognized by our memory immune cells. Second, they are contagious and potentially lead to outbreaks. Human-to-human transmission is outlined in more detail in the figure below. There is even human-to-animal transmission.
Modes of Infectious Disease Transmission (A) Pathogens can be transferred by environmental factors, such as wind and water. They can also be transferred between humans, as well as from humans to animal vectors. Animal vectors can further spread the disease through migration (if carried by birds or fish) or trade. (B) Human-to-human transmission has been classified into five main modes . These five modes are not mutually exclusive; for example, the Ebola virus can be spread through direct contact and, potentially, through droplet transmission. How pathogens can be transmitted mostly depends on how “hardy” they are outside a human body. Some cannot survive for long periods of time, so they require direct contact, droplet transmission, or transmission through an animal vector. Others, such as flu, can survive for long periods of time on surfaces – making them extremely contagious. Fecal-oral pathogens are a large problem in developing countries, but not in developed countries such as the US.
In order to control outbreaks, we often call upon epidemiologists. Epidemiologists observe how health-related events are distributed in the population and use that information to determine their causes and control their spread. In fact, John Snow (described in the first paragraph) is celebrated as one of the fathers of epidemiology. Drawing from John Snow’s example, we can see that the solution to fighting epidemics requires coordination between multiple agencies, including citizens, scientists, physicians, and government officials. In the US, this job often falls to the CDC, and internationally, the World Health Organization (WHO).
In conclusion, infectious diseases are caused by microorganisms that can hijack the nutrients and cellular machinery in our bodies. Fortunately, our immune system and current therapies can keep us healthy. In fact, according to the WHO,  infectious, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional-related diseases combined caused about 23% of deaths around the world . However, the recent Ebola outbreak has shown us that infectious diseases are still a major threat. This is especially important with an increasing amount of global travel and a lack of new drugs . We can do our part by taking sick leave or avoiding travel when ill, taking antimicrobial drugs properly (finishing the course), getting the appropriate vaccinations to protect those vulnerable in the population (through herd immunity), and asking scientists and politicians to make infectious diseases a priority. source:

Wednesday, 20 June 2018


Submit your abstracts and avail early bird discounts on registration #abstracts #bacteriology2018 #conferences #november 14-15,2018 #microbiology #microbiologist #discount  kindcongress PlacidWay Medical Tourism CrowdReviews Medgadget  To know more visit: To submit abstract: